Genetic factor The heredity basis for psychiatric disorders was already recognized at the turn of the nineteenth century by Enail Kraepelin. Cognitive genetics The sequencing of the human genome and the identification of a vast array of DNA polymorphisms has afforded cognitive scientists with the opportunity to interrogate the genetic basis of cognition with renewed vigor.
Fronto-striatal circuitry in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Imaging studies using positron emission tomography PET , and magnetic resonance imaging MRI techniques have implicated the fronto-striatal circuitry in ADHD, an area rich in dopaminergic activity. Brain structure A wealth of literature has examined the anatomical structure of the brain in children with ADHD. Neurobiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Neurobiology of ADHD has been another valued topic of investigation.
Role of the putamen The role of the putamen has also been studied as an etiological factor for the ADHD. Neuropsychology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Studies examining the neuropsychology of ADHD provide an opportunity to understand the relationship between underlying biological processes and symptoms of ADHD. Prenatal Some studies have not found a greater incidence of prenatal pregnancy or birth complications in children with ADHD compared to normal children whereas others have found a slightly higher prevalence of unusually short or long labor, fetal distress, low forceps delivery, and toxemia or eclampsia in children with ADHD.
Exposure to environmental toxins Exposure to environmental toxins specifically lead has also been reviewed as a causal factor for ADHD. Medication Most widely researched and commonly prescribed treatments for ADHD are the psychostimulants, including methylphenidate, amphetamine, and pemoline. Diet Diet is another environmental influence, often cited by parents as having an adverse influence on the ADHD symptoms of their child.
Co-morbidity ADHD appears to be associated with a wide variety of other psychiatry problems, which are often co-morbid with it. Motor coordination Children with ADHD often demonstrate poor motor co-ordination or motor performance and balance. Academic functioning Children with ADHD have an impaired academic functioning and are usually at an educational disadvantage upon school entry.
Unintentional physical injury Children with ADHD appear to be at a greater risk for unintentional physical injury and accidental poisoning. References 1. Ghanizadeh A. BMC Psychiatry ; 12 Jenson P. Current concept and controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 2 Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men.
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Evidence of a familial association between attention deficit disorder and major affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 48 Pauls DL. Genetic factors in the expression of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 1 A controlled study of siblings of hyperactive children. J Nerv Ment Dis ; What are the key directions in the genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 21 Family study of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Psychiatric genetics: progress amid controversy.
An Introduction to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
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What is the difference between ADD vs. ADHD?
Mol Chem Neuropathol ; 28 Science ; Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene. Am J Hum Genet ; 56 Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry ; 1 Dopamine D4 gene 7-repeat allele and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Family based and case control association studies of DRD4 and DAT1 polymorphisms in Chinese attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients suggest long repeats contribute to genetic risk for the disorder. Heritability of frontal brain function related to action monitoring. Psychophysiology ; 45 Molecular genetics of attention. Ann N Y Acad Sci ; Meta-analysis of family-based association studies between the dopamine transporter gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Psychiatr Genet ; 15 Family-based association study of the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism 5-HTTLPR in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Overview of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young children
Am J Med Genet ; Behav Genet ; 32 Syndrome of attention deficit with hyperactivity as the expression of an organic functional disorder. Revista Neurologia ; 35 Using MRI to examine brain-behavior relationships in males with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for abnormalities in response selection in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Differences in activation associated with response inhibition but not habitual motor response.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 20 Alterations in the functional anatomy of working memory in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset. Corpus callosum morphology in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: morphometric analysis of MRI.
J Learn Disabil ; 24 Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 53 Diamond A. Close interrelation of motor development and cognitive development and of the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Child Dev ; 71 The Cochrane Library. Tripp G, Wickens JR. Neurobiology of ADHD. Neuropharmacology ; 57 Tannock R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: advances in cognitive, neurobiological, and genetic research. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 39 ; Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in girls with attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder.
Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 5 The German multi centre study on smoking related behaviour-description of a population based case control study. Addict Biol ; 16 Barkley RA. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; Review of neuroimaging studies of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders from the past 10 years.
Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls.
Neurology ; 48 Magnetic resonance imaging volumetric analysis of the putamen in children with ADHD combined type versus control. J Atten Disord ; 10 Nat Med ; 6 Am J Hum Genet ; 67 Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance study. Proc Natl Acad Sci ; 95 Increased striatal dopamine transporter in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of methylphenidate as measured by single photon emission computed tomography.
Neurosci Lett ; Basal ganglia surface morphology and the effects of stimulant medications in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and asymmetry of the caudate nucleus. J Child Neurol ; 8 Mataro M. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements of the caudate nucleus in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with neuropsychological and behavioral measures.
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Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 57 Associations between cerebral blood-flow measured by single photon emission computed tomorgraphy SPECT , electroencephalogram EEG , behavior symptoms, cognition and neurological soft signs in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. Acta Paediatrica ; 89 SPECT brain imaging abnormalities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clin Nucl Med ; 20 Nigg JT. Is ADHD a disinhibitory disorder?
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Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 28 Sonuga-Barke EJB. Behav Brain Res ; When is impulsiveness not impulsive. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 35 Hyperactivity and delay aversion III: the effect on cognitive style of imposing delay after errors. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 37 J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 29 Sonuga-Barke EJS. On the reorganization of incentive structure to promote delay tolerance: a therapeutic possibility or ADHD.
Neural Plasticity ; 11 Medical factors in hyperactive and normal children: prenatal, developmental, and health history findings. Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 55 J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 47 Lead and hyperactivity. Behavioral response to chelation: a pilot study. Main and interaction effects of metallic pollutants on cognitive functioning. J Learn Disabil ; 18 Brucker-Davis F. Effects of environmental synthetic chemicals on thyroid function. Thyroid ; 8 Kidd PM. Altern Med Rev ; 5 Deficits in psychological and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels.
The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood: an 11 year follow-up report. Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change of ADHD symptoms between 8 and 13 years of age: a longitudinal twin study. Johnston C, Mash EJ. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev ; 4 J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 30 Mash EJ, Johnston C. A comparison of the mother—child interactions of younger and older hyperactive and normal children.
Child Dev ; 53 Hyperactive and normal girls and boys: mother-child interaction, parent psychiatric status and child psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 26 Mothers and fathers interacting in dyads and triads with normal and hyperactive sons. Dev Psychol ; 28 Gardner FEM. The quality of joint activity between mothers and their children with behaviour problems. Observations of parent-child interactions with hyperactive children: research and clinical implications. Clin Psychol Rev ; 11 Gomez R, Sanson AV.
Mother-child interactions and noncompliance in hyperactive boys with and without conduct problems. Johnston C. Parent characteristics and parent—child interactions in families of non-problem children and ADHD children with higher and lower levels of oppositional-defiant disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 24 Hyperactive girls and boys: stimulant drug effects on mother-child interactions. Befera M, Barkley RA. Hyperactive and normal girls and boys: mother-child interactions, parent psychiatric status, and child psychopathology.
Further evidence for family-genetic risk factors in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder - patterns of comorbidity in probands and relatives in psychiatrically and pediatrically referred samples. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 49 Treatment of parenting behavior with psychostimulant: a case of study of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 4 J Attention Disord ; 7 Effect of psychostimulants on brain structure and function in ADHD: a qualitative literature review of magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroimaging studies.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 74 Treatment of attentional and hyperactivity problems in children with sympathomimetic drugs: a comprehensive review. Background and rationale. Boris M, Mandel FS. Foods and additives are common causes of the attention deficit hyperactive disorder in children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 72 Nutrition in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; a neglected but important aspect. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback ; 28 The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children.
Arch Dis Childhood ; 89 Food colouring and preservatives — allergy and hyperactivity. Prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of DSM-5 proposed disruptive mood dys-regulation disorder. Co- existing disorders in ADHD - implications for diagnosis and intervention. Eur J Adolesc Psychiatry ; 13 Rappley MD. Clinical practice. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. ADHD in Swedish 3- to 7-year-old children. Which better predicts conduct problems? J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 48 Pediatrics ; The psychosocial functioning of children and spouses of adults with ADHD.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 44 Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years, part I. Handbook of developmental psychopathology. New York: Springer US; Psychiatric symptoms in children with gross motor problems.
Adapt Phys Activ Q ; 29 Motor coordination problems in children and adolescents with adhd rated by parents and teachers: effects of age and gender. J Neural Transm ; Gillberg C. Hyperactivity, inattention, and motor control problems: prevalence, comorbidity and background factors. Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 50 Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dev Neuropsychol ; 13 Kadesjo B, Gillberg C. Developmental coordination disorder. Hum Mov Sci ; 20 Wilson PH.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 46 Executive impairment determines ADHD medication response: implications for academic achievement. J Learn Disabil ; 44 Daley D, Birchwood J.
Child Care Health Dev ; 36 Professional Dev Edu Dimensions and types of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity in children: a factor and cluster-analytic approach. Rucklidge JJ, Tannock R. Neuropsychological profiles of adolescents with ADHD: effects of reading difficulties and gender. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 43 Battelle developmental inventory.
Allen: DLM; Visual behaviour of ADHD children during an attention test: an almost forgotten variable. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 41 Attention deficit disorder and age of onset of problems behaviors. J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 20 Behaviour problems and pre-school intellectual attainment. The associations of hyperactivity and conduct problems.
Large group community based parenting programs for families of preschoolers at risk for disruptive behaviour disorders: utilization, cost effectiveness, and outcome. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 36 Olson S, Brodfeld PL. Assessment of peer rejection and externalizing behaviour problem in preschool boys; a short term longitudinal study. J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 19 Empirically supported psychosocial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Psychol ; 27 Is self-esteem an important outcome in hyperactive children?
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 23 However, much less attention has been devoted to understanding the forces that constrain medication consumption. This information is crucial for developing a deeper understanding of medication consumption, one that explains how context mediates the ability of key actors to shape medication consumption. To explain the French case I use the theory of countervailing powers. Informed by interviews with key informants, the French medical literature on psychostimulants and secondary sources, I explain how the state, medical experts and consumers have acted as countervailing forces against pharmaceutical interests.
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate measurement invariance MI for an ADHD latent trait across different sociodemographic groups sex, age, and maternal education , IQs, and co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses. Method: Participants were 2, children aged 6 to 14 years. MI was tested through multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and multiple indicators multiple causes models. Results: In a bifactor model including a general ADHD factor and three specific factors hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity , invariance properties were demonstrated and no individual items showed differential functioning.
The ADHD general factor was higher in boys and in those with psychiatric disorders. Younger age predicted hyperactivity. Lower IQ and higher level of education of the mother predicted inattention. Background and aims: Mental health problems are not uncommon among children of the immigrants. Recently, the immigrants' toll has increased in most developed nations. The children of immigrant parents are frequently susceptible to mental The association between being diagnosed with ADHD and being children of immigrant parents is poorly understood. A study by Lehti et al. This study attempts to critically appraise and evaluate the validity of the evidence of Lehti et al.
Methods and Material: This critical appraisal was done using critical appraisal tool CAT mentioned in Glynn study which calculates overall and section validity of a research paper by calculating validity scores. Statistical analysis: Percentage calculation for validity was done. Results and Conclusions: The study appraised here couldn't attain overall validity, therefore according to this appraisal, future studies are required to address the knowledge gap in this pertinent area of child psychiatry. In addition, to make FHDR a better tool for psychiatric research, incorporation of codes of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders along with codes of International Classification of Diseases is highly recommended.
Students with Learning Disabilities have special needs in academic, classroom, behavioral, physical, and social performance, and the most common area requiring adaptation of classroom procedures is academic instruction. The issue of The issue of timely identification, assessment and remediation to help students to cope up with the difficulties in education has started gaining attention in India as a crucial step needed for ensuring an education system that proves truly inclusive since much yet still needs to be done in this regard.
The relevance and urgency of exploring this area is therefore of utmost importance. This Paper attempts to explore and discuss the concept, need and issues in the identification and assessment of students with Learning Disabilities in India. Family relationships and behavioral disorders.
Resilient resources for quality of life. This paper examines the situation of families with children having behavioral disorder with regards to aspects related to family relationships and couple dynamics. In fact, many international studies highlight the daily difficulties that In fact, many international studies highlight the daily difficulties that a family has to face, above all related to the social impact of behavioral disorder which has direct repercussions on the sense of parental self-efficacy and, consequently, on the planning skills and educational aspects of mothers and fathers but also to the high level of stress affecting the couple.
Survey data confirm parents of children with behavioral disorders report lower levels of marital satisfaction and are more likely to divorce. Analyzing some of the most recurrent parent-training interventions for children with behavior disorder, this work aims at investigating all these aspects in a pedagogical perspective, raising questions about the quality of life of parents and children and the opportunities to promote a high quality of interpersonal and resilient relationships in the family.
Citation Taneja N. Otolar-yngol Open J. Among the many similar characteristics poor attention and reduced scores of central auditory processes are among the most common. Yet there exists a remarkable difference between the two conditions. Objective: The aim of this paper is to provide a quick overview of the areas of similarities and dissimilarities between CAPD and ADHD to provide a better understanding of the diagnosis and intervention between the two. However, it may also occur in conjunction with some other global dysfunctions affecting other modalities like neural timing deficits, language representation deficits and attention deficits.
CAPD has been reported in both children and adults. ADHD has been reported to be the most commonly reported neurobehavioral disorder among children. The children diagnosed with ADHD generally show a poor social, academic and occupational function. The association of ADHD with CAPD has been established on the basis of the common features concerning poor attention and reduced scores for the central auditory processes.
At the same time the evidences from various related disciplines like neuropsychology, cognition neuroscience and audiology present a line of difference between ADHD and CAPD. The problems associated with the regulation of behaviour are the most common complaints concerning ADHD over inattention problems. In contrary, in CAPD, deficits of the auditory perceptual problems are a major concern.
The implementation of selective clinical diagnosis may help plan a better management of these disorders. This forms a basis for specifically assessing the complete functioning of the auditory system. Since the problems of perception, linguistic and cognition coexist in these two disorders, hence there is a need to implement a multidisciplinary approach involving a team of audiologists, teachers, psychologists and physicians for the assessment and defining the therapeutic intervention.
Mixed amphetamine salts extended release: a clinical review of its use in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mixed amphetamine salts extended release MAS-XR has been demonstrated in pediatric, adolescent and adult studies to be a well tolerated and effective treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. MAS-XR utilizes a MAS-XR utilizes a double-pulse delivery system to replicate the pharmacokinetic properties of equal doses of immediate-release MAS administered 4 h apart. Adverse effects observed in controlled studies include anorexia, weight loss, dry mouth, insomnia and abdominal pain, and rates of adverse effects are comparable to other stimulant agents approved for ADHD.
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At this time, there are no data to suggest that sudden death due to cardiovascular complications occurs more frequently in patients treated with MAS-XR than in the general population, but careful consideration of the risks and benefits of MAS-XR is warranted in patients with pre-existing structural heart disease and adult patients with a history of hypertension.
American Society for Nutrition Annual Meeting Towards a fuller assessment of benefits to children's health of reducing air pollution and mitigating climate change due to fossil fuel combustion. Background Fossil fuel combustion by-products, including particulate matter PM2. Various policies to reduce emissions have been implemented to reduce air pollution and mitigate climate change, with sizeable estimated health and economic benefits.
However, only a few adverse outcomes in children have been considered, resulting in an undercounting of the benefits to this vulnerable population. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature published between January 1, and April 30, to identify relevant peer-reviewed case-control and cohort studies and meta—analyses. In some cases meta-analyses were available that provided reliable C-R functions and we assessed their consistency with subsequent studies. Otherwise, we reviewed all eligible studies published between our search dates.
Results For each pollutant and health outcome, we present the characteristics of each selected study. We distinguish between C-R functions for endpoints having a causal or likely relationship PTB, LBW, autism, asthma development with the pollutants for incorporation into primary analyses and endpoints having a suggestive causal relationship with the pollutants IQ reduction, ADHD for secondary analyses.
Conclusion We have identified C-R functions for a number of adverse health outcomes in children associated with air pollutants largely from fossil fuel combustion. Their incorporation into expanded assessments of health benefits of clean air and climate mitigation policies will provide an important incentive for preventive action. Dopamine Turnover in Asperger Syndrome. This paper presents a model of Asperger Syndrome as a hypodopaminergic condition.