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Design, testing and assembly of rectangular patch antenna
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Thesis on Antenna Design
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Research paper with imrad format. Business plan steps involved from concept to commissioning. Essay on cold war. Monkey essay in tamil. Brilliant activities for creative writing. Formato de curriculum vitae el salvador. According [ 7 ] a FBR better than 20 dB is the goal of this work.
Before starting the finite ground plane array design, a study of back lobe radiation becomes necessary for the better understanding of the back radiation mechanism. This undesired effect is treated in this work by the analysis of single antenna and two arrays printed in dielectric substrate of 2. Firstly, a linearly-polarized single microstrip radiator is analyzed in HFSS software to elucidate the E-Plane asymmetries effect [ 5 ] and to provide elementary knowledge and skills for the array design. The analyzed antenna operating at 2. Radiation patterns of E-plane xz , and H-plane yz , are presented in Fig.
The radiator operates in the fundamental mode T M 10 z , taking the Fig. The E-plane radiation pattern of this radiator is indubitably asymmetric, enforcing a relevant field level in the back region. The asymmetric far field is attributable to the difference in phase between the fringes. This phenomenon is caused by the fact that probe excitation creates evanescent modes that contributes to radiation pattern distortion [ 15 ].
This asymmetric shape in the E-plane is more pronounced for antennas printed in thicker substrates [ 16 ].
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This undesired far field in the back region of a single element will create a high back lobe level when an array is composed. The back lobe behavior is next investigated in terms of the eight-elements arrays with half-wavelength spacing, in the side by side Fig. These arrays are designed in HFSS software and uniformly excited. Radiation pattern for both configurations are presented in Fig.
This figure illustrates that back lobe of side by side configuration is higher than collinear one. Depending on the electrical dimensions of ground plane and substrate thickness, the back lobe grows to unacceptable values [ 2 ], [ 16 ]-[ 17 ].
An intuitive way to reduce the back lobe of side by side array is the compensation of fringing phase differences, making the E-plane radiation pattern symmetric and with a null at back lobe direction. In this work this compensation is realized by means of the border diffraction effects controlled by the radiators asymmetrically positioned with respect to the ground plane. In order to get this condition, a back lobe level is investigated by a parametric analysis of relative positioning of the radiators with respect of the ground plane.
This analysis is carried out, looking for the null of back lobe level that is achieved when the diffracted fields at ground plane border reach a condition that compensates the difference of the fringes phase. The relative positioning of radiators above ground plane is established by variables G 1 , G 2 , G 3 , and G 4 , in accordance with the dashed black and blue symmetry lines defined in the Fig.
Given the ground plane asymmetry variables, a parametric study was carried out and its results are shown as follows. During this study, each parameter was varied alone, while the rest were held fixed. The influence of the variables G 1 and G 2 in the antenna array radiation pattern is shown in Fig. From the parametric analysis it is clear that setting correctly G 1 and G 2 dimensions, the back lobe can be suppressed. To make evident the back lobe level reduction, the Tables 1 and 2 were built, synthetizing the data from the radiation patterns showed in Fig.
On the other hand, in Fig. One can observe that these parameters do not affect the array FBR. After detailing the back lobe level control process, the design of a four-elements array with half-wavelength spacing assisted by HFSS software is carried out, which allows a prototype to be built and tested. The array geometry is presented in Fig.
The probe position p is set to 12 mm. The coefficients indexes are related to each array element, taking the Fig. Finally, to validate the explanation above described with respect of asymmetric radiation pattern, the far field E-plane xz- plane of the array is plotted in Fig. After the array project, the next step consists in the beamforming circuit design, presented below, contemplating the excitations above described. The topology of the antenna array with beamforming circuit is a multilayer structure presented in the Fig.
An electrical thin substrate is employed in order to reduce microstrip circuit radiation. This values are used to insure widths between 0. Having chosen the beamforming structure, the transition between the printed antenna and the beamforming circuit was designed following [ 2 ].
Firstly, considering the aforementioned coefficients, the beamforming circuit was optimized for real active input impedance Z in at the reference planes RP indicated in Fig. Furthermore, in Fig.
Next, a second set of quarter wave transformers are designed see Fig. Then, a novel T-junction was introduced to connect the two circuit sections, as it can be seen in Fig.
Microstrip Antenna Thesis
These two dielectric substrates were integrated using the Rogers bonding film. As this bonding film is a low loss dielectric, the antenna array ground plane had to be removed, imposing that the beamforming circuit ground plane works like antennas array ground plane simultaneously.
The beamforming circuit prototyped in the TMM substrate is presented in Fig. Note that, a copper-made bar was introduced in the structure see Fig. Simulations of the array in the presence of this metallic support were carried out indicating that array works properly as previously expected. To conclude the analysis, the experimental and simulated radiation patterns in zy -plane are compared. The results for the zy -plane patterns are presented in Fig. From these figures, it is found that theoretical and experimental results are in very good agreement.
This paper has shown a simple and easy-to-manufacture concept to reduce the back lobe level of microstrip antenna arrays. The proposed procedure is based on the asymmetrical disposal of the array elements with respect to the ground plane. A four-element linearly polarized antenna array was designed to verify the concept and special attention to its beamforming circuit design was given.
Details about the beamforming circuit synthesis based on the active input impedance optimization were provided in a step-by-step approach. The small discrepancies between prototype and theoretical results are certainly due to the inaccuracies in the construction processes, since it involves the bonding of the two substrates. Garg, P.
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Bahl, A. Nascimento, J. Yoon, J. Kim, B. Farzaneh, S. Microwave Theory and Techniques , vol.